ASSESSMENT OF THE MANAGEMENT OF COASTAL RESOURCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA
Ph.D Thesis by Ukpe, Ime George – April 2019
The study of Assessment of the Management of Coastal Resources Sustainably was purposed to identify coastal resources and analyze the evolved policies guarding exploitation, determine factors that cause degradation, examine the management loopholes and proffer solutions. Two approaches; experimental and descriptive survey were used. Experimentally, air, soil, water and vegetation were analyzed and descriptively using survey approach, reconnaissance survey, in-depth and focus discussions, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and administration of questionnaire were used. Analytically, conservation strategy, frequency of exploitation, government involvement and worldwide most acceptable coastal management strategies were used. These approaches were used to identify coastal resources while descriptive analysis of coastal resources management was used to find out the model most appropriate for the management of coastal resources. The application of chi-square was used to analyze the observed and expected exploitation of resources. The result showed that the observed loss was insignificant compared to expected losses. Since x2 cal 0.01 of 2144.87 was greater than x2 tab 0.01 of 135.80, then x2 cal is significantly different at 1%. The Observed frequencies are significantly different from the expected. The intensity and frequency of exploitation in the identified resources were in descending order as follows: lumbering, fishing, sand mining, transport, fish drying, and green groceries. Others were wildlife, aesthetics, spawning ground, sea products and forest products. The application of multivariate analysis – correlation and multiple stepwise regressions showed that lumbering was the most correlated and contributed most to the total resources stock availability in the study area. This condition was possible with application of lirket structure which lumbering had high positive and significant correlation at P˂0.01.since lumbering was the most active degraded resources based on Y = 0.67+ 41.6X1+ 33.5X2 + 23.2X3 + 14.3X4 +1.6X5 and 6.1X6. It was also the most contributed resources. Natural and anthropogenic activities were found to be the main causes of coastal resources degradation. The creation of buffer and reserved zones in the forest, the use of traditional and modern conservation practices and the use of alternative resources as substitute provided an acceptable management control measures. Integrated Coastal Zone Management was suggested to be the most appropriate management tool to be implemented by a particular responsible Agency. It was recommended that government should play its role effectively to assist the management agency to produce the expected result.